فيلم حياة عشوائية بلاك بلوك Black bloc

Posted: January 29, 2013 in Comedy


A black bloc is a tactic for protests and marches where individuals wear black clothing, scarves, sunglasses, ski masks, motorcycle helmets with padding, or other face-concealing and face-protecting items.[1][2] The clothing is used to conceal marchers’ identities, allow them to appear as one large unified mass, and promote solidarity.

The tactic was developed in the 1980s in the European autonomist movement’s protests against squatter evictions, nuclear power and restrictions on abortion among other things.[1] Black blocs gained broader media attention outside Europe during the 1999 anti-WTO demonstrations, when a black bloc damaged property of GAP, Starbucks, Old Navy, and other multinational retail locations in downtown SeattleThis tactic was developed following increased use of police force following the 1977 Brokdorf demonstration[3][4][5] by the German police in 1980, particularly aimed at anti-nuclear activists and squatters. Key areas for this development were Hafenstraße, Hamburg, and Kreuzberg, Berlin. These were social spaces occupied by dissidents who preferred to create their own social institutions based on communal living and alternative community centres. In June 1980, the German Police forcefully evicted the Free Republic of Wendland, an anti-nuclear protest camp in Gorleben, Wendland. This attack on 5,000 peaceful protesters led many former pacifists to become willing to use violent methods. By December 1980 the Berlin City Government organised an escalating cycle of mass arrests, followed by other local authorities across West Germany. The squatters resisted by opening new squats, as the old ones were evicted. Following the mass arrest of squatters in Freiburg, demonstrations were held in their support in many German cities. The day was dubbed Black Friday following a demonstration in Berlin at which between 15,000 and 20,000 people took to the streets and destroyed an expensive shopping area. The tactic of wearing identical black clothes and masks meant that the autonomen were better able to resist the police and elude identification. The German media labeled them der schwarze Block (“the black block”).
بلاك بلوك (بالانجليزية: Black Bloc) وهي تعني الكتلة السوداء ، هو تكتيك للمظاهرات والمسيرات يرتدى فيه الأفراد الملابس السوداء والأوشحة والنظارات والأقنعة وخوذات الدراجات النارية المبطنة أو غيرها من الأشياء التى تحمى و تخفى الوجه . وتستخدم الملابس لإخفاء هويات المشاركين في المسيرة ، و تسمح لهم أن يبدون وكأنهم كتلة موحدة كبيرة ، و تعزز التضامن بين الأفراد .

و لقد نما هذا التكتيك في 1980 في احتجاجات حركات الإستقلال الذاتى الأوروبية ضد عمليات إخلاء وضع اليد ، وسياسات الطاقة النووية وفرض قيود على الإجهاض إلى جانب أمور أخرى . اكتسبت الكتل السوداء اهتمام أوسع من وسائل الإعلام خارج أوروبا خلال المظاهرات المناهضة لمنظمة التجارة العالمية عام 1999 ، عندما أتلفت كتلة سوداء ممتلكات محلات الملابس (جاب) (GAP)، و(أولد نيفى) (Old Navy) ، وستاربكس وغيرها من مواقع البيع بالتجزئة متعددة الجنسيات في وسط مدينة سياتل .

البلاك بلوك نشأت و عرفت أساساً فى ألمانيا تحت إسم “Schwarzer Block” و كان ظهورهم فى الثمانينات من القرن الماضى و قد إرتبطت جماعات البلاك بلوك عادةً بأعمال الشغب و المظاهرات كما حدث فى ألمانيا و كذلك فى إيطاليا فى الأحداث التى إستمرت من يوم الخميس 19 يوليو حتى الأحد 22 يوليو ، 2001 . أثناء إنعقاد مجموعة الثمانية أو مجموعة الدول الصناعية الثمانية G8 فى جينوفا فى إيطاليا وقد نما هذا التكتيك بعد زيادة استخدام قوات الشرطة بعد مظاهرة بروكدورف عام 1977 من قبل الشرطة الألمانية في عام 1980 ، التى كانت تستهدف على وجه الخصوص النشطاء المناهضين للاسلحة النووية وواضعي اليد على الأراضى و الممتلكات . وكانت المناطق الرئيسية لهذا النمو فى هافنستراب ، هامبورغ، وكروزبرج ، برلين . وقام هؤلاء المنشقين فى هذة المناطق بإحتلال المساحات الاجتماعية و فضلوا إنشاء مؤسسات اجتماعية خاصة بهم على أساس العيش المشترك والمراكز المجتمعية البديلة . في يونيو 1980 ، قامت الشرطة الألمانية بإخلاء “جمهورية وندلاند الحرة” بالقوة ، وهو معسكر احتجاج ضد الطاقة النووية في جورلبين ، وندلاند . أدى هذا الهجوم على 5000 من المتظاهرين السلميين أن أصبح العديد من دعاة السلام السابقين على إستعداد لإستخدام الأساليب العنيفة . بقدوم شهر ديسمبر من عام 1980 ، نظمت حكومة مدينة برلين سلسلة متصاعدة من الإعتقالات الجماعية ، تلتها حملات مماثلة من السلطات المحلية الأخرى في جميع أنحاء ألمانيا الغربية . قاوم واضعي اليد ذلك من خلال وضع اليد على مساحات جديدة ، عندما تم طردهم من القديمة . بعد حملة الإعتقال الجماعية لواضعي اليد في فرايبورغ ، نُظمت مظاهرات لدعمهم في العديد من المدن الألمانية . و قد أطلق علي هذا اليوم اسم الجمعة السوداء عقب مظاهرة في برلين نزل فبها بين 15,000 و 20,000 شخص إلى الشوارع ودمروا منطقة تسوق فاخرة . كان تكتيك لبس ثياب سوداء وأقنعة مماثلة يعني أن الإستقلالين كانوا أكثر قدرة على مقاومة الشرطة ومراوغة تحديد هويتهم . وأطلقت عليهم وسائل الإعلام الألمانية “دير شوارتز بلوك” “Der Schwarze Block” أو (“الكتلة السوداء”) .

في عام 1986 ، قام واضعي اليد فى هامبورج بتعبئة هجمات لاحقة على هافنستراب . نزلت مظاهرة من 10,000 شخص إلى الشوارع محيطة ب1500 شخص على الأقل في كتلة سوداء . وحملوا لافتة كبيرة تقول “ابنى سلطة مزدوجة ثورية!” . في نهاية المسيرة ، شرعت الكتلة السوداء في قتال الشوارع مما أجبر الشرطة على التراجع . فى اليوم التالي تم إشعال النار 13 متجر في هامبورغ ، مما تسبب في ما يقرب من 10 مليون دولار أضرار . في وقت لاحق من ذلك العام ، في أعقاب كارثة تشيرنوبيل ، قام نشطاء مسلحين مناهضين للتكنولوجبا النووية بإستخدام هذا التكتيك .

في 1 مايو 1987 ، تعرض مهرجان الشعوب السلمية في برلين كروزبرج لهجوم من قبل الشرطة في ألمانيا الغربية . ونتيجة لهذا الهجوم غير المبرر ، هاجم آلاف من الناس الشرطة بالحجارة والزجاجات وقنابل المولوتوف . أصبحت أعمال الشغب هذة شهيرة بعد أن إضطرت الشرطة إلى الإنسحاب بشكل كامل من ما يسمى بحي “36 SO” في كروزبرج لعدة ساعات ، قام خلالها المشاغبين بنهب المتاجر جنبا إلى جنب مع السكان .

عندما جاء رونالد ريغان إلى برلين في يونيو 1987 ، تجمع فى إستقباله حوالي 50,000 متظاهر إحتجاجاً على سياساته الحرب الباردة وشملت هذه كتلة سوداء من 3000 شخص . وقبل مرور بضعة أشهر في وقت لاحق ، كثفت الشرطة مضايقاتها لواضعي اليد فى هافنستراب . في نوفمبر 1987 ، انضم للسكان آلاف من الإستقلالين الأخرين وقاموا بتحصين القرفصاء (وضع اليد على مكان) ، و بنوا متاريس في الشوارع ودافعوا عن أنفسهم ضد الشرطة لما يقرب من 24 ساعة . بعد هذا قامت سلطات المدينة بالتصديق على إقامة واضعي اليد .

في 1 مايو 1988 ، نظمت جماعات اليسار المتطرف مظاهرة عيد العمال خلال كروزبرج برلين ، التى أنتهت بأعمال شغب أفدح من العام السابق . وهاجم المتظاهرون الشرطة بكرات صلب أطلقوها بالمقاليع وبالحجارة والألعاب النارية وقنابل المولوتوف . في 2 مايو ، العنوان الرئيسي لصحيفة برلين B.Z. كان “!Beirut?? Nein, das ist Berlin” (بيروت؟ لا، إنها برلين!) . أخيراً ، أصبحت أعمال الشغب تقليداً في برلين كروزبرج ومنذ ذلك الوقت تكررت هذة المظاهرات كل سنة فى 1 مايو ولكنها لم تكن خطيرة كما في العامين الأولين . عندما اجتمع البنك الدولي وصندوق النقد الدولي في برلين عام 1988 ، حشد الإستقلاليون تجمع دولي للنشطاء المناهضين للرأسمالية . بوصول عدد المتظاهرين إلى حوالي 80,000 شخص ، كان عدد المحتجين أكبر بكثير من الشرطة . حاول المسؤولون الحفاظ على السيطرة من خلال حظر جميع المظاهرات ومهاجمة التجمعات العامة . ومع ذلك ، كانت هناك
In 1986 Hamburg squatters mobilised following attacks on the Hafenstraße. A demonstration of 10,000 took to the streets surrounding at least 1,500 people in a black bloc. They carried a large banner saying “Build Revolutionary Dual Power!” At the end of the march, the black bloc then engaged in street fighting that forced the police to retreat. The next day 13 department stores in Hamburg were set alight, causing nearly $10 million in damage. Later that year, following the Chernobyl disaster, militant anti-nuclear activists used the tactic.

On 1 May 1987, a peaceful peoples fest in Berlin-Kreuzberg was attacked by West German police.[6] In consequence of the unprovoked attack, thousands of people attacked the police with rocks, bottles and Molotov cocktails. The riots became famous after the police had to completely pull out of the so called “SO 36” Neighborhood in Kreuzberg for several hours, and rioters looted shops together with residents.[7]

When Ronald Reagan came to Berlin in June 1987, he was met by around 50,000 demonstrators protesting against his Cold War policies. This included a black bloc of 3,000 people. A couple of months later, police intensified their harassment of the Hafenstraße squatters. In November 1987, the residents were joined by thousands of other autonomen and fortified their squat, built barricades in the streets and defended themselves against the police for nearly 24 hours. After this the city authorities legalised the squatters residence.

On 1 May 1988, radical left groups organised a May Day demonstration through Berlin-Kreuzberg, ending in riots even heavier than the year before. The police were attacked with steel balls fired by slingshots, stones, fireworks and Molotov cocktails. On 2 May, headline of the Berlin newspaper B.Z. was “Beirut?? Nein, das ist Berlin!” (Beirut?? No, it´s Berlin!). The riots finally became a tradition in Berlin-Kreuzberg and have recurred every 1 May since, but never as fatally as in the first two years.[8] When the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund met in Berlin in 1988, the autonomen hosted an international gathering of anti-capitalist activists. Numbering around 80,000, the protesters greatly outnumbered the police. Officials tried to maintain control by banning all demonstrations and attacking public assemblies. Nevertheless, there were riots and upmarket shopping areas were destroyed.[9]
21st century

In the period after the Berlin Wall, the German black bloc movement continued traditional riots such as May Day in Berlin-Kreuzberg, but with decreasing intensity. Their main focus became the struggle against the recurring popularity of Neo-Nazism in Germany. The “turn” came in June 2007, during the 33rd G8 summit. A black bloc of 2,000 people built barricades, set cars alight and attacked the police during a mass demonstration in Rostock.[10] 400 police officers were injured, and also about 500 demonstrators and activists. According to the German Verfassungsschutz, the weeks of organisation before the demonstration and the riots themselves were amounted to a revival for the militant left in Germany. Since the “Battle of Rostock”, traditional “May Day Riots” after demonstrations every May 1 in Berlin, and since 2008 also in Hamburg, became more intense, and violence of the autonomen against police officers and political enemies at demonstrations of radical left groups have dramatically increased.[11] In Egypt after the Egyptian revolution in year 2013 Egyptian Black Bloc Movement appeared to protest President Mohamed Morsi polices .
International development

The first recorded use of the tactic in United States of America was in 1989 at a protest at the Pentagon. Other early use in the US were the Earth Day Wall Street Action in 1990 and the February 1991 protests against the Gulf War. These were initiated by Love and Rage, a North American revolutionary anarchist organization active in New York. Black blocs gained significant media attention when a black bloc caused damage to property of GAP, Starbucks, Old Navy, and other retail locations in downtown Seattle during the 1999 anti-WTO demonstrations.[12] They were a common feature of subsequent anti-globalization protests.[13] During the 2010 G20 Summit in Toronto, a black bloc riot damaged a number of retail locations including an Urban Outfitters, American Apparel, Adidas Store, Starbucks and many banking establishments.[14][15]

A group of about 400 black bloc anarchists took part in the 2011 London anti-cuts protest where they attacked various high end retail outlets; according to journalist Paul Mason this may have been the largest ever black bloc assembly in the UK. Mason says some of the members were anarchists from Europe, others were British students radicalised after participation in the 2010 UK student protests.[16]

In January 2013, on the second anniversary of the Egyptian Revolution, black blocs made an appearance in the Egyptian political scenes were they have reportedly attacked various Muslim Brotherhood headquarters and government buildings and stopped traffic and metro lines in more than 8 cities. A group of young protesters, who identified themselves as the “Black Bloc”, have marked the second anniversary of the Egyptian revolution by blocking the tramway tracks in Alexandria on Friday.[17] [18][19]
Police infiltration

Police and security services have infiltrated black blocs with undercover officers. Since all members conceal their identities, it is harder to recognize infiltrators. Allegations first surfaced after several demonstrations. At the 2001 G8 summit in Genoa, amongst the many complaints about the police[20] there was mention of video footage in which “men in black were seen getting out of police vans near protest marches.”[21] In August 2007, Quebec police admitted that “their officers disguised themselves as demonstrators.” On these occasions, some were identified by genuine protesters because of their police-issue footwear.[22][23] In 2003 the Oakland, CA Police Dept infiltrated a group of peaceful anti-war protestors at the port. Oakland police captain Howard Jordan said “You don’t need to have some special skill to infiltrate these groups. Two of our officers were elected leaders within an hour of joining the group. So if you put people in there from the beginning, I think we’d be able to gather information and maybe even direct them to do something that we want them to do.”[24]
Tactics

When we smash a window, we aim to destroy the thin veneer of legitimacy that surrounds private property rights … After N30 [November 30], many people will never see a shop window or a hammer the same way again. The potential uses of an entire cityscape have increased a thousand-fold. The number of broken windows pales in comparison to the number of spells—spells cast by a corporate hegemony to lull us into forgetfulness of all the violence committed in the name of private property rights and of all the potential of a society without them. Broken windows can be boarded and eventually replaced, but the shattering of assumptions will hopefully persist for some time to come.
ACME Collective, quoted in Paris (2003)[25]

Tactics of a black bloc can include offensive measures such as street fighting, vandalism of corporate property, rioting, and demonstrating without a permit, but mainly consists of defensive tactics like misleading the authorities, assisting in the escape of people arrested by the police (“un-arrests’ or “de-arrests”), administering first aid to persons affected by tear gas, rubber bullets and other riot control measures in areas where protesters are barred from entering, building barricades, resisting the police, and practicing jail solidarity.[26][27][28] Property destruction carried out by black blocs tends to have symbolic significance: common targets include banks, institutional buildings, outlets for multinational corporations, gasoline stations, and video-surveillance cameras.[29]

There may be several blocs within a particular protest, with different aims and tactics.[30] As an ad hoc group, blocs often share no universally common set of principles or beliefs[30] apart from an adherence to–usually–radical left or autonomist values, although some anarchist groups have called for the Saint Paul Principles to be adapted as a framework in which diverse tactics can be deployed.[29] A few radical right-wing groups, like some of the “autonomous nationalists” of Europe[31] or the Australian National-Anarchists[32] have adopted “black bloc” tactics and dress.
See also

2010 G-20 Toronto summit protests
Antifa
Anti-globalization movement
Anti-nuclear movement in Germany
Rebecca Riots
Union flying squad
Zengakuren

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Further reading

Albertani, Claudio (2002). “Paint It Black: Black Blocs, Tute Bianche and Zapatistas in the Anti-globalization Movement*”. New Political Science 24 (4): 579-595. doi:10.1080/073931402200002540 8. ISSN 1469-9931.
Dupuis-Déri, Francis (2010). “The Black Blocs Ten Years after Seattle: Anarchism, Direct Action, and Deliberative Practices”. Journal for the Study of Radicalism 4 (2): 45-82. ISSN 1930-1189.
Gautney, Heather (September 2009). “Between Anarchism and Autonomist Marxism”. Working USA 12 (3): 467-487.
Graeber, David (2009). Direct Action: An Ethnography. Oakland: AK Press. ISBN 978-1904859796.
Graeber, David (09 February). “Concerning the Violent Peace-Police: An Open Letter to Chris Hedges”. n+1. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
A Communique On Tactics by the Green Mountain Anarchist Collective & Anti-Racist Action
Juris, Jeffrey S. (2005). “Violence Performed and Imagined: Militant Action, the Black Bloc and the Mass Media in Genoa”. Critique of Anthropology 25 (4): 413-432. doi:10.1177/0308275X05058657. Retrieved 28 May 2012.
Katsiaficas, George. The Subversion of Politics: European Social Movements and the Decolonization of Everyday Life. Oakland and Edinburgh: AK Press, 2006.
The Black Bloc Papers, by Xavier Massot & David Van Deusen
Paris, Jeffrey (2003). “The Black Bloc’s Ungovernable Protest”. Peace Review 15 (3): 317-322. doi:10.1080/1040265032000130913.
Shantz, Jeff. Active Anarchy: Political Practice in Contemporary Movements. Lanham,MD: Lexington Books, 2011.
Black Blocs and Contemporary Propaganda of the Deed, by Jeff Shantz

References

^ a b c Autonomia and the Origin of the Black Bloc. Retrieved 7 November 2008.
^ Carlson, Kathryn Blaze (15 June 2010). “Black Bloc & Blue”. National Post. Archived from the original on 15 June 2010. Retrieved 15 June 2010.
^ TopFoto – http://www.topfoto.co.uk (19 February 1977). “TopFoto Gallery – History of Germany 1963-1988 by ullstein bild”. Topfoto.co.uk. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
^ TopFoto – http://www.topfoto.co.uk (19 February 1977). “TopFoto Gallery – History of Germany 1963-1988 by ullstein bild” (in German). Topfoto.co.uk. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
^ TopFoto – http://www.topfoto.co.uk (19 February 1977). “TopFoto Gallery – History of Germany 1963-1988 by ullstein bild” (in German). Topfoto.co.uk. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
^ “Kreuzberger Chronik: Der Mythos von Bolle – Sie lesen das Original! aus Berlin-Kreuzberg” (in German). Kreuzberger-chronik.de. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
^ “Die Nacht, als Bolle in Kreuzberg abbrannte – Berlin – Berliner Morgenpost – Berlin” (in German). Morgenpost.de. 30 April 2007. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
^ Peter Neumann, Jan Thomsen (31 May 2008). “Kreuzberger übernehmen Vorbereitung für den 1. Mai: Textarchiv: Berliner Zeitung Archiv” (in German). Berlinonline.de. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
^ A.G. Grauwacke. We Will Disrupt this Conference: Resistance to the 1988 IMF and World Bank Conference in West Berlin. In. Dissent Network! (eds). Days of Dissent: Reflections on Summit Mobilisations. http://www.daysofdissent.org.uk./berlin.htm translated from German as an extract from: A.G. Grauwacke. Autonome in Bewegung: aus der ersten 23 Jahren. Association A. (ISBN 3-935936-13-3).
^ “G-8-Protest: Randale in Rostock – 430 verletzte Polizisten – SPIEGEL ONLINE – Nachrichten – Politik” (in German). Spiegel.de. 2 June 2007. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
^ “DER SPIEGEL 23/2011 – Verfassungsschutz warnt vor linker Militanz” (in German). Spiegel.de. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
^ Rick Anderson (22 December 1999). “Delta’s down with it – Page 1 – News – Seattle”. Seattle Weekly. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
^ Fernandez, Luis A. (2008). Policing Dissent: Social Control and the Anti-globalization Movement. Rutgers University Press. p. 59.
^ By CBC.ca. “G20 protest brings violence, arrests – News – MSN CA”. News.ca.msn.com. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
^ The Canadian Press (26 June 2010). “Violent Black Bloc tactics hit Toronto during G20 protest”. Retrieved 28

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